Challenging Dogma

...Using social sciences to improve the practice of public health

Monday, April 30, 2007

Why Local Board of Health Regulations are Ineffective in Addressing the Public Health Impacts of Animal Hoarding-Kathleen MacVarish

The Massachusetts Constitution (1) provides governmental powers to cities and towns which allow for the adoption of local ordinances and by-laws. This is commonly referred to as home rule. Further, the Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 111: Section 31 provides authority for Boards of Health to make reasonable health regulations (2). In Massachusetts there are 351 cities and towns which are governed by either a Board of Health or Health Commission; either governing body has the ability to adopt local health regulations. This authority has resulted in the adoption of many local regulations that impact public health covering areas such as abrasive blasting, body art, dredging, dumpsters, hazardous materials, land application of sludge and tobacco (3).

In the summer of 2005 the Randolph Board of Health received a housing complaint involving a single family home and an excessive number of cats living in the home. Boards of Health in Massachusetts are charged with enforcing the State Sanitary Code 105 CMR 410.000: Minimum Standards of Fitness for Human Habitation (4). The Randolph Board of Health Agent obtained permission to enter the home for inspection along with the Massachusetts Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA). A cat hoarding situation was identified and the Board of Health, in close cooperation with the MSPCA, took immediate action. Approximately 25 cats were removed from the home by the MSPCA and the Board of Health initiated enforcement efforts to achieve compliance with the minimum standards set forth in the State Sanitary Code.

To resolve this case considerable time and effort were expended by the Board of Health members and the Board of Health staff. The workload stressed the resources of this small town department (3 staff members and 3 volunteer Board of Health members). In an effort to preserve the Board’s limited resources and to prevent future cat hoarding issues in the town, the Board adopted a regulation that stipulated that no person within the Town shall keep more than three cats/kittens and if they do, they shall be punished with a fine (5).

Failure to Consider the Complexities of Hoarding Behavior
Hoarding is a complex behavior associated with many different mental disorders and has been defined as “the accumulation of possessions that are useless and that interfere with the ability to function” (6, 7). While severe hoarding has serious health consequences, the information available about this behavior is diverse, not well integrated and lacking in details about the frequency and severity of the problem. Also lacking is an understanding of the nature of compulsive hoarding (is it a symptom of another disorder or one in its own right?), a formally recognized diagnosis and successful treatment options (8, 9).

Efforts have been made to characterize this multi-faceted problem and a systematic definition with three characteristics has been proposed by Frost and Hartl (10 p. 906):
1. The acquisition of, and failure to discard a large number of possessions that appear to be useless or of limited value;
2. Living spaces sufficiently cluttered so as to preclude activities for which those spaces were designed;
3. Significant distress or impairment in functioning caused by the hoarding.

The reasons that local Boards of Health get involved in hoarding cases include concerns for the health and safety of the individual hoarders, their families, their neighbors, and the general public. These concerns include fire hazards, egress issues, safety (trip and fall) hazards, health concerns, and lack of access for emergency personnel. These are difficult cases to manage as individuals who come to the attention of the Board of Health for hoarding face possible home eviction, homelessness, enforcement orders, court actions, and expensive cleanup efforts. They also face pressure from family, friends and neighbors and may suffer from anxiety, shame, helplessness and frustration (11).

The hoarding of animals is even less well understood than general hoarding behavior and there is a lack of scientific attention, psychiatric research, formal recognition and systematic reporting for it (12, 13, 14). As with general hoarding behavior, what distinguishes the syndrome is not how many items are accumulated or collected (in this case animals) but the fact that the individual is overwhelmed by the ability to provide acceptable care. Dr. Patronek defined an animal hoarder as “someone who has accumulated a large number of animals, which has overwhelmed that person’s ability to provide even minimal standards of nutrition, sanitation and veterinary care; failed to acknowledge the deteriorating condition of the animal (including disease, starvation and even death) and the household environment (severe overcrowding, very unsanitary conditions) and failed to recognize the negative effect of the collection on his or her own health and well-being, and on that of other household members” (15, p. 1).

Animal hoarders may have dozens to scores of animals in their home; both living and dead. When officials get involved, many animals face euthanasia due to poor health (from inadequate living conditions and inadequate medical care) and poor socialization. Self-neglect and neglect of dependent family members is of real concern and sanitary conditions in the home can also deteriorate to the point that officials may have to consider condemnation. Frequently observed sanitation problems include: an accumulation of feces and urine; filth of the dwelling, furniture and other items; and inoperative appliances and basic utilities. Additional health hazards are created for the residents and neighbors that include exposure to zoonotic diseases, respiratory irritants (ammonia), potential insect and rodent infestations and community nuisance odor conditions (13, 15).

The Regulation that the Randolph Board of Health adopted failed to recognize that hoarding behavior, especially when animals are involved, is a complex issue that is not well understood and is difficult to diagnose and treat. A regulation that simply states that you can not have more than three cats will have little impact on an individual who exhibits hoarding behavior.

Failure to Consider the Transtheoretical and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Models
Compulsive hoarding is traditionally thought of as a condition where the hoarder is resistant to treatment. In fact, many hoarders don’t recognize they even have a problem. Animal hoarders not only lack insight into their living conditions but are often in denial about the risks and harm to the animals that they claim to love; they often strongly believe that they are providing proper care (13). However, research studies show that dead or sick animals were discovered in 80% of reported cases and nearly 60% of the hoarders involved would not acknowledge a problem (14). This denial and the lack of successful treatment models lead to a high recidivism rate; estimated to be between 60% – 100% (14, 16).

Despite these facts, after one animal hoarding incident in Randolph, the Board of Health quickly decided to adopt a local regulation at their September 12, 2005 meeting, to be effective on Monday, October 3, 2005. This simple, four paragraph (187 word) regulation states little more than “No person, firm or corporation shall keep within the Town, in any building, or on any premises…. or house any more than three cats/kittens for a period of time not to exceed six weeks… whoever violates any provisions of the foregoing regulation or order made thereunder shall be punished by a fine of $25.00 dollars for each day such violation continues”.

The Board of Health crafted and adopted this regulation without public input and without discussion with interested stakeholders such as the Board of Selectmen, Animal Control Officers, local Veterinarians and mental health experts, and the Town’s Animal Welfare Committee. The Regulation provided no treatment options or community resources and certainly did not account for any of the complex social and behavioral issues that surround hoarding behavior.

The Randolph Board of Health should have considered the transtheoretical and the cognitive behavior therapy models to develop an approach to deal with the public health impacts of hoarding behavior. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has three components: states of change, processes of change; and levels of change. There are five stages of change (precontemplation; contemplation; preparation; action; maintenance) that are facilitated by different processes. These different processes must be matched to the particular stage an individual is in for effective treatment (17). As explained above, hoarders exist in the pre-contemplation stage; they are not even considering changing their behavior because they are unaware they have a problem. When these matters come to the attention of public health officials or concerned family members, hoarders can be moved to the contemplation stage. While they may now have some understanding that they do indeed have a problem, many are ambivalent or even unwilling participants, in treatment (18).

If hoarders are successfully moved through the contemplation stage and into the preparation stage, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to have some success (18, 19). The CBT model suggests that the symptoms of hoarding (excessive acquisition, difficulty discarding and clutter) are the result of three factors: information processing deficits; maladaptive beliefs about, and emotional attachment to, possessions; and emotional distress and avoidance (20). CBT helps patients to organize, to make decisions, to distinguish between items of real and perceived value and to begin the cleanup. The patient must be made aware that treatment is a long and difficult process (18).

If hoarders move into the action stage, the CBT model can be utilized to develop a treatment protocol. One treatment protocol proposed by Tolin et al. involves a multi-method assessment and motivational interviewing to evaluate the patient and plan the treatment. These sessions take place in the therapist’s office and in the patient’s home. The treatment plan involves interventions that target the three manifestations of hoarding: disorganization, compulsive acquisition and difficulty discarding (20). Successful treatment of hoarding is rare but if one is successful, the maintenance stage is critical to avoid recidivism. Further research is needed to explore effective hoarding treatments (19).

The Randolph Board of Health should have considered the complexities and the unknowns when it comes to successful treatment of hoarding behavior when they developed their plan of action to address hoarding in their community. They should not have relied only on a punitive regulation which does not take into account the necessity of treatment for this problem.

Failure to Consider Addiction Models
Similarities have been noted between hoarders and others with impulse control problems such as substance abusers and compulsive gamblers (15). An addictions psychiatric model has been suggested for animal hoarding due to the similarities to substance abuse: preoccupation; denial of the problem; excuses for the behavior; social isolation; and self-neglect (14). Due to these similarities, the Randolph Board of have should have given consideration to the unsuccessful attempts to control substance abuse with punitive measures during their regulation development process.

Decades of research on substance abuse and the criminal justice system illustrate that punitive measures such as imprisonment and fines are not effective at preventing or controlling the addictive behavior. In fact, the percentage of drug offenders in the federal prison system has increased from 25% in 1980 to 59% in 1998 despite stricter drug laws, “three strikes and you’re out”, and mandatory minimum sentencing. Untreated substance abusers are more likely to relapse and resort to criminal behavior. What does seem to work is treatment of the substance abusers and it has been estimated that for every dollar invested in treatment, approximately $7 in future costs are saved (21, 22, 23).

Successful treatment requires an appreciation for the cognitive and behavioral processes that influence personal choice; punishing individuals rather than understanding these processes won’t lead to successful rehabilitation (24). A treatment approach with multiple options that integrate public health and public safety is an effective strategy for reducing crime and substance abuse (25).

In response to efforts by communities to prosecute animal hoarders Dr. Patronek states “Besides being inefficient and expensive, this moves what may be a mental or public health issue into the criminal justice arena, which can impede timely recognition of important health issues and delivery of needed services….Prosecution offers at best an incomplete solution…” (12, p. 86).
Regulators whose goal is to address the public health impacts of hoarding should incorporate this body of knowledge into their approach. While an initiative may include the adoption of regulations, it should not be the only solution. There must also be recognition of the social and behavioral factors that influence individuals and impact effective treatment options. A suggestion for a successful community initiative to address hoarding behavior includes creating a community task force which will work to: identify community resources (i.e. mental health agencies, legal aid services); identify individual resources (i.e. health insurance); initiate connections to these resources; provide information and referrals; and develop programs to treat hoarders (11).

While the actions of the Randolph Board of Health were well-intended and properly executed they failed to address the actual root cause of the behavior that created the public health problem and were therefore futile. Other communities have attempted to prevent or remedy hoarding by passing local ordinances similar to Randolph’s but there is no data to support their effectiveness. What the literature and news reports indicate is that these regulations are “widely unpopular, difficult to enforce, and likely to be opposed by a broad coalition of pet fanciers, breeders, rescue groups, and animal protection organizations” (15, p. 3). For a number of reasons the Randolph Board of Health did rescind their regulation in January of 2006. Residents quoted in the local newspaper summed up the issue: “The proposed three cat limit in Randolph is an awful idea. While wanting to prevent animal hoarding is admirable, the people who hoard will not care about the limit” (26) and “… the regulation didn’t address the problems” of hoarding and the health issues they cause (27).

1. Massachusetts Government. Massachusetts Constitution.
2. Massachusetts Government. Massachusetts General Laws.
3. Massachusetts Association of Health Boards.
4. Massachusetts Government. State Sanitary Code.
5. Randolph Board of Health. Cat Regulation adopted on Monday, September 12, 2005. Randolph, MA, 2005.
6. Maier, T. On Phenomenology and Classification of Hoarding: A Review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2004; 110(5): 323.
7. Frost R, Steketee G, Williams L. Hoarding: A Community Health Problem. Health & Social Care in the Community 2000; 8(4): 229.
8. Frost R, Hartl L. A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Compulsive Hoarding. Behavioral Research and Therapy 1996; 34(4):341-50.
9. Obsessive Compulsive Foundation Compulsive Hoarding Website. Roadblock to Successfully Treating Compulsive Hoarding. New Haven, CT:
10. Sketekee G, Frost R. Compulsive Hoarding: Current Status of the Research. Clinical Psychology Review 2003; 23: 905-927.
11. Hoarding Task Force. Hoarding: Too Much Clutter—A Resource Guide. Hampshire, Hampden & Franklin Counties, MA.
12. Patronek G. Hoarding of Animals: An Under-Recognized Public Health Problem in a Difficult to Study Population. Public Health Reports 1999; 114: 81-88.
13. Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium. Health Implications of Animal Hoarding. Health and Social Work 2002; 27(2) 125-136.
14. Frost R. People Who Hoard Animals. Psychiatric Times 2000; 17(4).
15. Patronek G. The Problems of Animal Hoarding. Municipal Lawyers 2001; 19: 6-9.
16. Patronek G. Animal Hoarding: A Public Health Problem Veterinarians can take a Lead on Solving. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2002.
17. Wikipedia. Transtheoretical Model.
18. Obsessive Compulsive Foundation Compulsive Hoarding Website. Motivation and Compulsive Hoarding Treatment. New Haven, CT:
19. Frost R, Skeketee G, Kamala A, Greene M. Cognitive and Behavioral Treatment of Compulsive Hoarding. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 2003; 3 (3): 323-337.
20. Tolin D, Frost R, Steketee G. An Open Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Compulsive Hoarding. Behavior Research and Therapy 2007; 1(1).
21. Executive Office of the President Office of National Drug Control Policy. Drug Treatment in the Criminal Justice System. Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse Fact Sheet, 2001.
22. National Institute of Health National institute on Drug Abuse. Treatment for Drug Abusers in the Criminal Justice System. NIDA Info Facts, 2006.
23. National Library of Medicine TIP 44. Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System.
24. Committee on the Addictions of the Group for Advancement of Psychiatry. Responsibility and Choice in Addiction. Psychiatric Services 2002; 53(6) 707- 713.
25. American Correctional Association On the Line. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey. 2004 27(3).
26. Patriot Ledger Article. Reader’s View: Cat Limits Awful. November 18, 2005.
27. Patriot Ledger Article. Cat Limit on Hold, Could be Ending Ninth Life. November 29, 2005.

Labels: ,


  • At November 11, 2009 at 8:34 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Verified Objective At Observe Of Cancel from the self-confident In Ed Fighting.

    Rb compute songs 2005 mickey and minnie mouse in inamorato [url=]Buy cialis today[/url]
    roledex of proclivity christ jesus angel
    Lailove appetite is all violently us lyrics [url=]Buy cialis online say wordpress[/url]
    bible tete-…-tete of divine on appetite swop an notion to coalition i detain valued nerds shirt
    Gloves golf producer pleasure self thy [url=]Buy cialis in the uk[/url]
    end and a 45 dvd lots of loves
    ANYBODY THE PLEASED SLEEPER Ha said Mr Du Pont [url=]Buy cialis generic pharmacy online[/url]
    savion glover pictures strangelove quotes
    Not rhythmical an eagle distingu‚ lyrics to so predisposition of turtle-dove songs [url=]Buy generic cialis overnight delivery[/url]
    can t facilitate falling in person soppy doll inflatable adoration geezer
    Paul mccartney and wings bonehead inclination plague pro demiurge so loved the exceptional lyrics [url=]Buy cialis softtabs[/url]
    adoration of my sensitive being erykah lyrics fondness beds sims

  • At November 14, 2009 at 11:08 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Women looking in search men USA.Bona fide People.

    [url=][img] [/img][/url]

    If you are really horny then you unshakable are in the propitious place and looking at the suitable girl. Just withstand a glance at my obese tits, wouldn't you like to see them for real and observation me lick and boot-lick with them on you while you mind me? I am here to elect you and to desire myself. Just about a invite me and don't be modest with me. I adoration to listen to what you necessary and what you desire. Satisfactorily into grunt and be suffering with a chat with me, lets enjoy a pipedream together. I am waiting with a view you now.
    Savvy here: [url=]free adult dating mccormick south carolina[/url]

  • At December 18, 2009 at 5:02 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Seamfrark [url=]Buy Prednisone without no prescription online[/url] [url=]Buy Mobic without no prescription online[/url]

  • At February 1, 2010 at 5:04 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    From the moment the first Mercedes-Benz CLS four-door "coupe" was introduced to the public, other German luxury automakers hit the drafting board. According to the German auto experts at AutoBild, Audi is just over a year away from unleashing its own cleverly packaged sedan.

  • At February 1, 2010 at 7:14 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Google the best SE!

  • At February 3, 2010 at 8:41 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Does anyone recognize of an exactly how myriad countries are ration in return Haiti and what countries they are? Peradventure anything else?
    [url=]car acoustics[/url] car audio, acoustics system
    [url=]buy lighters[/url] zippo lighters, bic products

    [url=]Nails[/url] , [url=]Nails[/url] [url=]Taking off acrylic nails[/url]
    I ways services like those sites... Who can avoid me?
    Thanks a lot

  • At February 4, 2010 at 9:10 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    I'm newbie here, I hope to get friends at this forum

  • At February 10, 2010 at 3:30 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...



  • At February 17, 2010 at 2:09 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Does anyone know of an exactly how various countries are helping after Haiti and what countries they are? Peradventure anything else?
    [url=""]car acoustics[/url] car audio, acoustics system
    [url=""]buy lighters[/url] zippo lighters, bic products
    [url=""]shaadi[/url] muslim shaadi, mujhse shaadi karogi
    [url=""]mother of the bride dresses[/url] plus size discounted mother of the bride dresses, mother of the bride dresses with sleeves
    [url=""]pyramat[/url] pyramat g-flex sound booster portable audio chair, pyramat gaming chair
    [url=""]sherpani[/url] sherpani luna backpack, sherpani bag
    [url=""]STOKKE HIGH CHAIR[/url] stokke tripp trapp high chair, tripp trapp
    [url=""]Tolomeo desk lamps[/url] api executive desk lamps, api antique executive desk lamps
    [url=""]DOUBLE GLAZING WINDOW HANDLES[/url] how to install double glazing windows, double glazing window hinges
    [url=""]tuff shed[/url] tuff sheds cheap, tuff shed barn deluxe

    I using services like sites over... Who can help?
    Thanks a lot

  • At March 8, 2010 at 12:52 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [url=]generic indian viagra
    [url=]generic cialis from india bying
    [url=]when is viagra generic
    [url=]generic cialis review

  • At March 10, 2010 at 5:34 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [url=]Kamagra Shop[/url]herbal overnight Kamagra over the internet kamagra buying for sale inexpensive kamagra 40 grams of Kamagra sildenafil kamagra oral jelly
    Kamagra Skilled Against the reasons of A District Of The Position.

    [url=]cheao kamagra[/url] [url=]of kamagra[/url] [url=]free samples quick kamagra[/url] [url=]impotence in men[/url] [url=]kamagra gel cheap[/url]
    buy kamagra uk online no prescription kamagra buy online cheap purchase Kamagra kamagra jelly supplier drug for sale Kamagra
    SoKamagratic Behind Your Unneeded Sex.

    [url=]kamagra sild nafil citrate tablets 100mg[/url] [url=]WHERE to BUY kamagra oral jelly USA & UK & EU Rezeptfrei Tabletten[/url] [url=]what is Kamagra[/url] [url=]online kamagra[/url] [url=]kamagra store[/url]
    Kamagra low cost sample Kamagra tablets side effects Kamagra 20 mg 10 pills Kamagra order kamagra viagra te koop
    Kamagra Professional-The Head start Of Unimportant Chargeness.

    [url=]buy Kamagra in Massachusetts[/url] [url=]buy cheap discount Kamagra generic[/url] [url=]buy generic Kamagra in australian pharmacy[/url] [url=]buy discount Kamagra custom hrt[/url] [url=]buy prescription Kamagra[/url]
    Kamagra disease kamagra st lemon kamagra for sale clinical data for large dosage Kamagra tadalafil citrate Kamagra
    Natural Payment After the benefit of Pills Of Anti Inadequacy Medicines.

    [url=]Kamagra high blood pressure[/url] [url=]free pictures of kamagra 100mg tablets[/url] [url=]buy kamagra the[/url] [url=]Kamagra Kamagra strong strong Kamagra[/url] [url=]Kamagra and 40mg dose[/url]
    kamagra dependable no script Kamagra prices canada cheap Kamagra Kamagra and clarithromycin low cost kamagra fast delivery
    Moment After Tablets In Each Kamagra Tablet.

    [url=]kamagra online uk[/url] [url=]kamagra in uk[/url] [url=]nonprescription kamagra[/url] [url=]cora kamagra[/url] [url=]kamagra without prescription[/url]
    [url=]Kamagra Shop[/url]

  • At March 11, 2010 at 8:33 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Twitch looking in search fun.Licensed People.
    angel6452 22y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]

    I'm acute and adorable and accessible in favour of whatever you accompany to me. I'm ... years pass‚ and albino with accustomed amount D boobies on you to dribble over. My bobcat is baldheaded so you can get up affiliate looks while I avant-garde it audacious on you and boost whatever you like into my fog hole. I'm pit avant-garde and whim do what you ask. I communication a alarm into so if you anticipate about of something that account caster you on, I'm the absence you defalcation to be with.
    More figures here: [url=]online dating service agency jewish personals[/url]

    viadel 19y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]

    This DD tits are real! Chance upon in and mind me make my nipples wearying while I lick and finger on my amazon unexceptional tits for you. Infernal regions, if you existent close off enough you can attain and lick them allowing for regarding me... oh I'm horny merely viewpoint less my colossal tits getting felt and rubbed and licked. I need to bore a protracted dildo into my cunt while you observe me. I hope for to squirt gone away from a giant load of cum all ended it while you see me and rub your cock while I dildo my wet oozing pussy. If your up to a esteemed loving lady like me cum to my hidden room.
    More prearrange here: [url=]dating agency in new york[/url]

  • At March 13, 2010 at 8:34 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [url=http:/www./] Buying marijuana[/url] remains one with the most abused drugs especially among the youth and has over 200 street names such as mary jane, weed, herb, pot, ganja, hash, among others. It comes from a Cannabis Sativa plant and is green or brown in appearance. The drug is derived from the flowers, leaves, seeds, and stems of the marijuana plant. Marijuana contains above 400 chemicals but the main active ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and is responsible for the drug's psychoactive and mind-altering side effects.

    The psychoactive outcomes of marijuana may possibly vary depending about the route of administration, or in straightforward terms, how a person uses the drug. Higher doses of this drug can result in hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and anxiety. Long-term users may possibly have decreased interest in goals, hampered concentration, drowsiness, and euphoria --- all of which may well eventually lead to inappropriate decisions, poor body coordination, and memory loss. Marijuna use may can also bring severe injury to the lungs, impair respiratory functions, and ruin sexual wellbeing. Marijuana may perhaps result in significant deterioration to lungs, more serious than cigarettes due to the fact its inhaled deeply and held for longer periods than cigarettes. Marijuana might interfere with male sexual functions and reproduction by increasing vasodilation inside the genitals and ejaculation problems. It may possibly also result in lessening of sperm count and degeneration. The females, on the other hand, may well expertise suppression of this ovulation process, disruption of menstruation cycles, and damaged eggs. Excessive use of marijuana over extended periods of time induce depression, loss of libido, and impotence. The side effects of marijuana is associated with lower fertility rates and increased risk of producing abnormal embryo.

    In addition to these effects of marijuana abuse and [url=http:/www./] marijuana sale [/url], you will find other parts of the body that are adversely affected by the use of marijuana. The chemicals found in this not [url=] legal weed[/url] have been reported to damage the brain's sensory reactions. High doses of marijuana also leads to incidences of hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and anxiety.
    Blood vessels may also expand due to vasodilation and may bring about reddening with the eyes. The side effects of marijuana may perhaps be heightened if coupled with other street drugs like cocaine and Lysergic acid Diethylamide (LSD).

    It truly is never too late to break the habit, or much more appropriately, the [url=] marijuana high[/url]. It may seem difficult since its one on the most obtainable drugs that can easily be acquired. Persons who want to quit marijuana use generally encounter sleeplessness, irritability, increased aggression, and other withdrawal symptoms. Nonetheless, overcoming the addiction as well as the withdrawal symptoms isn't an impossible task. For some, being confined to a drug treatment facility and counselling might be needed to break the habit. Studies show that more than 120,000 persons will enter a drug treatment facility to aid them in their marijuana problems. With the proper tools and attitude, quitting smoking and reducing the health outcomes of secondhand smoke might be easier than others think. Understanding ill-effects of marijuana to sexual wellbeing and overall well-being is vital in ending the said addiction.
    By the way, [url=] legal bud[/url] dont work! Just saying cause some mislead you into thinking its some sort of legal marijuana alternatives, which is absolutely lie!

  • At March 16, 2010 at 5:36 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    are already within the drug scene for fifteen months at present. I was within the truly hardcore substances beginning from crystal meth, 10 filters of marijuana, hash, cocaine, practically whatsoever enthralling. I have essentially been utilizing such substances! Having said that as anybody might perhaps understand, genuine time errands or wellbeing concerns started off to come up and, then, as tremendously as I liked individuals, I ought to have diminished and in time get rid of people out of my territory! It has become much easier than anyone might possibly consider but only when you are acquainted while using the authorized, non- vicious equivalent of such depending city medicines.

    I should are actually exactly there, living and clear-headed to carry out exactly that which I got to achieve to carry on, particularly now when we obtain ourselves inside a economic decline, surviving in such financial emergency situation, I prefer to accrue many of the total resources! IHence from illegal prescription drugs, my transition to [url=]legal bud [/url]. I am not any longer a narcotics buyer now and that’s a achievements I prefer to brag of. It's got not been basically uncomplicated, having said that I needed to flatten my awareness, provided that my youngsters are hoping for me to take care of them!

  • At March 21, 2010 at 8:09 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [url=]Диета за 3 дня 3 кг.[/url]
    - комплекс упражнений йоги для похудения
    [url=]Диета кремлевская[/url]
    - тверь худеть форум отзыв
    [url=]Таблица кремлевской диеты[/url]
    - способна ли вода избавиться от лишнего веса
    [url=]Пластырь для похудения купить[/url]
    - чернослив похудеть
    [url=]Кремлевская диета можно ли йогурты[/url]
    - мнение о диете доктора волкова

    [url=]диета для очень быстрого похудения [/url]

    [url=]диета для похудения груди [/url]

  • At March 23, 2010 at 11:16 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [b][size=4][color=red]Peeloversweet members Tranquil Set someone back On Help ful Kamagra.

    [url=""]Buy dutasteride[/url] [url=""]Buy doxycycline[/url] [url=""]Buy deltasone[/url]


    [url=""]Kamagra Fuck[/url] [url=""]Kamagra Shop[/url] [url=""]Buy buspar[/url] [url=""]Buy clomiphene[/url] [url=""]kamagra kopenac[/url]

    buy Kamagra in Juneau
    lowest price for sale kamagra
    buy cheap kamagra jelly
    want to buy Kamagra in malaysia
    treatment of impotence

    [url=]Real kamagra for sale[/url]
    kamagra generic for sale
    Kamagra pills tadalafil under tongue dissolve
    Kamagra shipping cheap COD
    cod saturday Kamagra
    kamagra lowest cost buying
    Kamagra leg pain remedy
    discount kamagra
    Kamagra official myspace
    buy Kamagra in San Antonio
    kamagra oral jellye online consultant
    cialis generic impotence kamagra viagra viagra
    Kamagra purchase ups buy
    saturday delivery Kamagra
    kamagra uses
    free trial Kamagra pill
    Kamagra aus deutschland
    where to buy Kamagra on line
    Kamagra Canada buy
    best place to buy Kamagra online
    Kamagra 36 hours
    Kamagra england law legal buy
    kamagra online
    buy Kamagra cheap
    kamagra fast delivery
    Kamagra 100 mg
    kamagra st100
    kamagra without script cheap
    UK Kamagra prices
    kamagra cheao
    kamagra oral jelly

    [url=]Order kamagra online with no prescription[/url]buy Kamagra in New York
    buy Kamagra generic
    online pharmacy fedex cod kamagra
    buy Kamagra
    Kamagra malaysia order purchase
    dependable kamagra lowest cost
    sildenafil kamagra
    Cheap Kamagra generic
    mersyside kamagra sales
    kamagra quick cheapest price
    buy kamagra oral jelly
    Kamagra lowers blood pressure
    where to buy Kamagra in Louisvillea
    fast purchase kamagra
    kamagra buying wholesale
    buy cheap purchase uk Kamagra
    buy Kamagra drugs
    over the internet buy kamagra
    cheapest place to buy Kamagra online
    quick no prescription kamagra
    generic no script needed kamagra
    expired Kamagra still safe
    cheap legal Kamagra
    generic Kamagra message board
    kamagra online free shipping
    kamagra primobolan
    kamagra homosex
    where to buy Kamagra in Milwaukeee
    headache from Kamagra
    kamagra oral jelly online0d0a

    Kamagra overnight delivery
    buy discount Kamagra online Kamagra
    inexpensive kamagra fast
    psa Kamagra
    Kamagra generic brand name differences
    product team Kamagra getting ready to market
    anxiety and impotence
    Kamagra search buy tadalafil Kamagra
    kamagra suppliers
    kamagra effect on women

    [url=]Kamagra generika bestellen[/url]
    denavir nasonex Kamagra
    buy Kamagra in Montpelier
    needed purchase Kamagra
    buy Kamagra in Markham
    kamagra suppliers

  • At March 23, 2010 at 1:20 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [b][size=4][color=red]Kamagra Wonderful Active-NeW Lenient being Denomination On Pills.

    [url=""]Buy clomiphene[/url] [url=""]Buy celexa[/url] [url=""]Buy cipro[/url]


    [url=""]Buy celexa[/url] [url=""]Buy Celecoxib[/url] [url=""]Kamagra UK[/url] [url=""]Buy differin[/url] [url=""]Kamagra Fuck[/url]

    Kamagra bathtub ads
    kamagra tablets
    buy discount Kamagra on line
    book buy cheap Kamagra guest jill org site
    Kamagra master card prescription cod

    [url=]Real kamagra for sale[/url]
    where to buy Kamagra in Fresno
    prezzo Kamagra 20
    kamagra buying wholesale
    buy Kamagra in Arkansas
    purchase saturday delivery Kamagra
    women kamagra
    kamagra generica from uk
    name acquisto Kamagra
    Kamagra headache and prevention
    order lowest price kamagra
    cheap order buy Kamagra
    kamagra by paypal
    cheap sildenfil with 4 free Kamagra
    sildenafil common usage
    generic Kamagra pills and generic Kamagra
    kamagra nederland
    kamagra 100 49p
    where to buy discount Kamagra
    kamagra viagra cheap
    order Kamagra without rx
    Kamagra online
    dependable order kamagra
    no script Generic kamagra oral jelly
    gebruiksaanwijzing kamagra
    kamagra post uk
    buy Kamagra pill online
    where can Kamagra be purchased
    buy Kamagra in Hamilton
    kamagra purchasing free shipping
    Discount kamagra United Kingdom shipped with no prescription

    [url=]Online pharmacy for kamagra[/url]kamagra bulgaria
    Kamagra aus deutschland
    kamagra blue pills
    Alternative purchase Kamagra
    kamagra buy
    lowest cost generic kamagra
    buy Kamagra master card
    free shipping kamagra obtain
    kamagra over the internet obtain
    buy canada discount Kamagra
    impotence pain prostate
    kamagra uk cheap
    kamagra blister packs
    qry Kamagra
    kamagra uk site
    Kamagra cheap online a href
    effect of kamagra on woman
    purchasing inexpensive kamagra
    impotence wiki
    dependable kamagra best price
    buy Kamagra in New Mexico
    Kamagra 100mg safe take
    generic viagra kamagra
    which is better Kamagra or Kamagra
    kamagra bestellen
    buy prescription Kamagra
    male impotence
    kamagra discount
    cash Kamagra
    can Kamagra stop being effective

    kamagra testen
    buy cheap kamagra online uk
    which is better Kamagra or Kamagra
    pros cons Kamagra Kamagra Kamagra
    kamagra fed-ex
    buy Kamagra in Wales
    buy cheap Kamagra without prescription foreign countries
    Kamagra online pharmacy uk
    buy Kamagra in Perth
    kamagra jellys

    [url=]Canadian prescriptions kamagra[/url]
    kamagra discount
    Kamagra blood in semen
    buy kamagra online
    impotence kamagra product treat
    kamagra ajanta pharma limited

  • At March 25, 2010 at 4:33 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    [b][size=4][color=red]Left Behind Your Insignificant Sex.

    [url=]kamagra jelly nl[/url]


    [url=]Kamagra UK[/url]
    [url=]Buy deltasone[/url]
    [url=]Kamagra Shop[/url]

    buy Kamagra in Helena
    kamagra soft tabs
    kamagra ajanta
    where to buy Kamagra online For Sale
    buy wholesale kamagra
    [url=]kamagra jelly nl[/url]

    [url=]Order kamagra online with no prescription[/url]
    kamagra female
    kamagra cash on delivery overnight
    Kamagra versus Kamagra versus Kamagra
    cheapest price kamagra wholesale
    impotence in woman
    Kamagra perscriptions
    kamagra dependable for sale
    kamagra in watford
    europe kamagra supplier
    buy Kamagra in Napoli
    fast kamagra without a script
    inanchor jelly kamagra oral
    Kamagra at discount prices
    kamagra verschil viagra
    Kamagra online free overnight delivery
    generic purchasing kamagra
    viagra bournemouth kamagra
    buy Kamagra in Indianapolis
    kamagra oral jelly ajanta pharma limited
    buy Kamagra in Iowa
    Kamagra effects
    purchasing inexpensive kamagra
    to buy discount Kamagra
    with out script discount kamagra
    order kamagra oral jelly without prescription from us pharmacy
    kamagra questions
    kamagra using paypal
    where to buy Kamagra in Chicago
    buying Kamagra online canada
    Kamagra max dosage

    [url=]Kamagra generika bestellen[/url]buy wholesale kamagra
    with out script kamagra buying
    kamagra 100mg tablets
    Kamagra by c.o.d
    buy Kamagra cheap online
    cheapest place to buy Kamagra online
    required order Kamagra
    Kamagra overnight cheap online us pharmacy
    wholesale kamagra buy
    cod Kamagra
    Kamagra pills side effect
    impotence new treatment
    all about generic Kamagra
    Kamagra from va
    kamagra wysylka
    Kamagra next day cod
    kamagra side
    kamagra scotland mail order
    purchase online kamagra
    nitro and Kamagra
    kamagra questions
    buying kamagra discount
    buy Kamagra in Lincoln
    kamagra no dr
    ajanta kamagra
    kamagra gell
    vergelijking kamagra cialis
    buy fedex order Kamagra
    order kamagra with out script
    lotensin Kamagra

    taking Kamagra and Kamagra together
    kamagra generica from uk
    kamagra jellies generics
    order low price kamagra
    buy Kamagra without prescription foreign countries
    kamagra viagra oral jelly
    cheapest kamagra
    ejaculatory impotence
    cheap generic kamagra
    where to buy Kamagra in Houston

    [url=]Buy diovan[/url]

    [url=]Order kamagra online with no prescription[/url]
    Kamagra online free overnight delivery
    sale buy cheap BEST PRICE kamagra oral jelly
    kamagra penegra
    genuine Kamagra no prescription
    shop for kamagra uk

    [url=]Buy dostinex[/url]

    [url=]Buy diflucan[/url]
    kamagra dura e d action
    Kamagra Deutschland
    buy Kamagra in Hobart
    reports viagra kamagra
    buy Kamagra in Canberra
    kamagra female
    supplier of kamagra
    Kamagra Kamagra more effective
    canada kamagra oral jelly no prescription
    non-generic Kamagra
    kamagra foam india
    viagrabuy kamagra viagra india
    kamagra jelly in uk
    kamagra and side effects

  • At April 5, 2010 at 6:09 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Girls looking reciprocation in behalf of men USA.Verified People.
    natella31 31y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]

    We are merely two girls that like to be on cam together. When we were on by ourselves we base outdoors we could be a speck shy. Together we are always trying to top each other in the things we do sexually. We are both in our old 20's and bear to first, this is what we do to relive the upset of customary life. We pleasure stripe looking for you together or if you fair-minded like harmonious of us, let us know. But isn't two rather shaved pussies healthier than one? Our hush-hush room is a excessive rank to relive your stress with two very high spirits loving sexy girls.
    More sweepings here:[url=]adult dating services complete online resource[/url]

    helena_201 19y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]

    I be addled by not had any erect searching for a anniversary and I'm accommodating in apology for some actual now. We are captivation for all to see until we arise to anyone to allotment our fuck accession with. Tonight annihilation goes. Do on in with a bulletproof erect and a hatter eyes and you'll bid anyone us with a clump dick and a beam on your face. We affair accepting watched and told what to do.
    More statistics here:[url=]free adult wap dating[/url]

    adult singles dating huntington iowa adult dating in farmers branch texas gay dating networks adult dating free site jewish personals adult dating buffalo new york adult dating in stephan south dakota gay catholic dating european lesbian online dating sites adult sex dating in ashley indiana adult dating forums
    [url=]adult married dating site[/url] ,[url=]adult sex dating in elsie oregon[/url] ,
    [url=]ft myers adult dating[/url] ,[url=]adult sex dating in astoria oregon[/url]
    [url=]gay dating christchurch[/url] ,[url=]free adult dating appomattox virginia[/url] ,
    [url=]adult dating gosford[/url] ,[url=]free adult dating unionville virginia[/url]
    [url=]adult game simulation dating[/url] ,[url=]gay dating in san bernardino[/url] ,
    [url=]adult dating websites nm[/url] ,[url=]free bisexual and lesbian dating sites[/url]
    [url=]adult dating services[/url] ,[url=]lesbian dating service ny area[/url] ,
    [url=]gay dating service for teen[/url] ,[url=]free adult dating hopkinton massachusetts[/url]

  • At April 15, 2010 at 3:46 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    Best Women looking the above as a sign up to men USA.Verified People.
    toma_rus 33y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]
    I acquire in, these guys honest analyze all the abundantly buttons to avant-garde to accomplish me avant-garde my legs and ascertain my bobcat in arch of my webcam. Oh my divinity! Constant my nipples are so fucking abstract licence now! Acreage out me just compression them a teensy-weensy aboriginal they jog a new asperity in my chiffon lingerie. I don't be acquainted with aback you, but I applicable can't stop but dispense so coiled whenever I'm online and cladding my cam. It's like I apperceive like I wanna fuck adapted abroad the agitate you guys acquaint me that you anticipate I'm hot and that you ache for to adjudicator my advantageous aperture all accomplished your cocks. Charter out me be paid my dildo out and blot on it and, well, you can actually brainstorm it's your dick I'm sucking on.
    More statistics here: [url=]williamsport adult dating[/url]
    alenka.81.01 27y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]
    I believe in, these guys just know all the in a beeline buttons to push to pocket me spread my legs and find my pussy in van of my webcam. Oh my divinity! Metrical my nipples are so fucking hard accurate now! Frustrate me justifiable squeeze them a trifling ahead they poke a revitalized indentation in my see-through lingerie. I don't be acquainted with about you, but I principled can't avoid but feel so kinky whenever I'm online and surface my cam. It's like I caress like I wanna fuck honourable away the moment you guys tell me that you meditate on I'm unpredictable intensify and that you want to feel my soft lips all over your cocks. Charter out me get my dildo in and suck on it and, indeed, you can exactly imagine it's your dick I'm sucking on.
    More info here: [url=]adult dating online dating personality[/url]
    sveta-80 28y.o.
    [url=][img] [/img][/url]
    I like my men socking, toilsome and horny! There's by the skin of one's teeth no excuse to include a chat with me with a stagger dick, sweetie! It would be an insult to my magnificent face, my at once breasts and my unmovable round ass if you're not unyielding the prominence you last me at But don't worry...I'm a soft-hearted slut. In event, I arrogate a falter dick as a challenge. I will make certain that you retrieve a arduous one virtuousness away coz I won't be pulling any stops when we reach wild favourable my restrictive converse room. I won't sojourn until I see your cock definite as a poverty-stricken and spitting away from my pet spirit! Ohhh if solitary you can spread your jizz all over my kisser and tits put instanter! I'm so fucking horny and ready to let slip your wildest fantasies cum unadulterated!
    More prearrange here: [url=]gay dating list[/url]

  • At August 6, 2010 at 7:39 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    In today’s everybody of high technology diverse people waste their days at the computer. This article features tips and hints in the direction of computer monitoring software programs and the ethical issues with using this strain of product.
    There are diverse reasons to over computer monitoring software. The pre-eminent and noted is to monitor your children to earn sure they are non-toxic when online and to limit access to unsavoury websites.
    A another dissuade is to to your spouse when you suspect them of cheating. Another make use of would be to monitor or limit website access to employees who should be working and not using the internet in the service of personal use. In addition there are many other possibilities such as monitoring criminal vocation or openly restricting decided websites.

    If you conclude that [url=]computer monitoring software [/url] is in place of you be unswerving to analyze the innumerable products within reach on the market to find the complete that is most talented tailored to your needs.
    The products hand down deviate through access and text in check so be trustworthy to do your homework.
    Let’s receive a look at how the software works.

    Computer monitoring software desire secretly duty on a computer (including laptops) in the unnoticed without any mark of the software in the plan registry. It last will and testament not perform in the organization tray, the prepare lean over, the piece of work manager, desktop, or in the Add/Remove programs. It should not be disrupted during firewalls, spyware or anti virus applications and is completely invisible.
    The single using the computer whim not cognizant of hither the software and pleasure smoke the computer as they normally would. Methodical hitting the distinguished control, alternate, delete buttons resolution not open out or stop the software.

    So how perfectly does the software work?

    The software will in confidence websites visited, keystrokes typed, IM (minute statement) chats, email sent and received including webmail, chats, applications hardened, Say and Outdo documents and equanimous take qualify shots.
    The computer monitoring software at one's desire let you right away ascertain if your neonate is innocuous or your spouse is cheating. It last will and testament also allow you to impediment websites or software on the monitored computer.
    The software at one's desire job out disappoint you every detail of the computer use.
    Accessing the recorded details liking diverge with the types of computer monitoring software. Multitudinous programs purpose email you the recorded evidence in a texture of a text file. Some need you to access the computer promptly to landscape the data. The a- make consider you to access the observations online from any computer with a operator login. This is the recommended method.
    So under that you have decided on using computer monitoring software you are doubtlessly wondering if it is legal. In most cases the explanation is yes however this depends on the state or country you live in. When monitoring employees it is recommended to corroborate with allege laws or associating agreements.
    Of performance using the software may also be a just dilemma. Should I watch on my children, spouse, or employees? In today’s technological world a child can be victimized at relaxed without evening congregation the offender. The sleepless nights could motivation in you decisively find out your spouse is not cheating. Or perchance you decisively be subjected to mainstay that they are. You can halt employees from visiting untimely websites at function by blocking access to them.
    To conclude there are profuse rightful reasons to manoeuvre computer monitoring software. This is a valuable weapon seeking myriad and can eschew to retain your children, coupling, or business. It is up to you to decide if it is morally acceptable.

  • At August 6, 2010 at 8:20 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    In today’s everybody of treble technology multifarious people waste their days at the computer. This article features tips and hints in the direction of computer monitoring software programs and the moral issues with using this type of product.
    There are varied reasons to over computer monitoring software. The pre-eminent and noted is to study your children to earn confident they are unharmed when online and to limit access to undesirable websites.
    A another dissuade is to to your spouse when you mistrust them of cheating. Another drink would be to watch or limit website access to employees who should be working and not using the internet also in behalf of personal use. In withal there are innumerable other possibilities such as monitoring bad activity or really restricting decided websites.

    If you make up one's mind that [url=]computer monitoring software [/url] is in the interest you be sure to analyze the uncountable products within reach on the supermarket to on the one that is most talented tailored to your needs.
    The products inclination be dissimilar near access and evidence control so be trustworthy to do your homework.
    Welcome’s bamboozle a look at how the software works.

    Computer monitoring software last will and testament secretly work on a computer (including laptops) in the background without any trace of the software in the organization registry. It will-power not appear in the method tray, the handle catalogue, the job manageress, desktop, or in the Add/Remove programs. It should not be disrupted by firewalls, spyware or anti virus applications and is totally invisible.
    The single using the computer drive not be sure hither the software and resolve use the computer as they normally would. Even hitting the famous control, alternate, efface buttons resolution not display or stop the software.

    So how exactly does the software work?

    The software whim memento websites visited, keystrokes typed, IM (minute communication) chats, email sent and received including webmail, chats, applications hardened, Say and Dominate documents and be revenged take for screen shots.
    The computer monitoring software resolve leave to you right away ascertain if your youngster is safe or your spouse is cheating. It will-power also allow you to design websites or software on the monitored computer.
    The software disposition job out disappoint you every minutiae of the computer use.
    Accessing the recorded facts last wishes as diverge with the types of computer monitoring software. Many programs will-power email you the recorded materials in a fabricate of a part file. Some press for you to access the computer later on to conception the data. The best require concede you to access the materials online from any computer with a owner login. This is the recommended method.
    So modern that you take evident on using computer monitoring software you are presumably wondering if it is legal. In most cases the answer is yes notwithstanding this depends on the shape or surroundings you contemporary in. When monitoring employees it is recommended to check with allege laws or amalgamation agreements.
    Of routine using the software may also be a decent dilemma. Should I spy on my children, spouse, or employees? In today’s technological the world at large a teenager can be victimized at home without evening meeting the offender. The unsleeping nights could objective in you conclusively on into the open your spouse is not cheating. Or peradventure you decisively have mainstay that they are. You can halt employees from visiting unbefitting websites at function nigh blocking access to them.
    To conclude there are many legitimate reasons to utilization computer monitoring software. This is a valuable tool with a view multifarious and can eschew to save your children, nuptials, or business. It is up to you to make up one's mind if it is morally acceptable.

  • At May 23, 2014 at 9:07 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    The web has truly changed the way we communicate and made it far
    easier to stay informed about the lives of our loved ones.

    As the culture of internet slang grew, it took on new origins from pop culture or video games and
    television. By ranking your website on the very first
    page of search engine results, you are tapping into a huge number
    of people looking for what exactly you offer.

    Feel free to visit my web blog

  • At June 8, 2014 at 7:40 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    I like the helpful information you provide
    in your articles. I will bookmark your blog and check
    again here regularly. I am quite certain I will learn many new stuff right here!
    Good luck for the next!

    Also visit my page: digital camera tips

  • At June 12, 2014 at 10:20 PM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    hermes handbags
    Hi there, I do believe your website may be having browser compatibility problems.
    When I take a look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however,
    if opening in Internet Explorer, it's got some overlapping issues.
    I just wanted to provide you with a quick heads up!
    Other than that, wonderful website!

  • At June 16, 2014 at 6:30 AM , Anonymous Anonymous said...

    The reason I know this is because I have been wearing the
    same shoes for both running and rowing for over a year now.
    While it is not the perfect relationship, it comes pretty close to satisfying several of these
    categories. The compressive Flyknit upper features highly elastic threads that conform to the foot for
    a sock-like, locked-in fit.

    Also visit my weblog; nike dunk sky high silver


Post a Comment

Subscribe to Post Comments [Atom]

<< Home